» Age Range 0 to 5: Pedagogy

An Integrated Expressive Arts Program: drama, dance, art, music

December 20, 2009

Go to resource: An Integrated Expressive Arts Program: drama, dance, art, music was written by Wendy Schiller and Ann Veale. Published by the Australian Early Childhood Association, 1989.

The arts are presented in an accessible way for the non-specialist, with advice about techniques teachers can use to support creativity in children.

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An Introduction to Music in Early Childhood Education

February 3, 2010

Go to resource: An Introduction to Music in Early Childhood Education by Joanne Greata is published by Thomson Delmar Learning, New York, 2006. This publication is a resource for teaching music in early childhood settings and sets out music activities according to age-ranges.

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Australian National Council of Orff Schulwerk Inc (ANCOS)

January 24, 2010

Go to resource: The Australian National Council of Orff Schulwerk Inc (ANCOS) is the Australian organisation for Schulwerk music education methodology, and is linked to the Orff Institute in Salzburg. Their site includes links to workshops, conferences, professional learning, and membership details. There are also links to each state/territory chapter of the association. Some of these have individual websites.

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Children, meaning-making and the arts

February 3, 2010

Go to resource: Children, meaning-making and the arts, edited by Susan Wright, is published by Pearson Education, Frenchs Forest NSW, 2003.This volume outlines methods in early childhood and primary arts education, and covers all arts disciplines.

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Classical music apps for all ages (Article)

September 6, 2013

http://www.nj.com/entertainment/music/index.ssf/2013/09/apps_for_all_ages_introduce_classical_music_through_videos_art_and_games.html

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Comparing Dalcroze, Orff and Kodaly: choosing your approach to teaching music

January 24, 2010

Go to resource: Comparing Dalcroze, Orff and Kodaly: choosing your approach to teaching music by Gilles Comeau and published by CFORP, Vanier – Ontario, 1995, is translated from the 1995 thesis by Comeau. The publication compares music-teaching methodologies and is recommended by Dalcroze Australia.

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Dalcroze Australia

January 23, 2010

Go to resource: Dalcroze Australia is the official Dalcroze association in Australia and offers courses for teachers. Dalcroze Eurhythmics teaches music through body movement to provide a physical experience of music.  Activities cover improvisation and the use of solfege. The association’s events include conferences, workshops, and their site has links to more information about membership and events, as well as Dalcroze publications.

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Dalcroze Eurhythmics – Music Through Movement : Early Childhood Education Lessons and Ideas for Teachers in Music

January 24, 2010

Go to resource: Dalcroze Eurhythmics – Music Through Movement : Early Childhood Education Lessons and Ideas for Teachers in Music by Heather Gell and edited by Joan Pope, is published by the Heather Gell Dalcroze Foundation, Callaway International Resource Centre for Music Education, Nedlands WA, 2006. The publication contains lesson examples for four to six year old students.

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Dalcroze Eurhythmics in Today’s Music Classroom

January 24, 2010

Go to resource: Dalcroze Eurhythmics in Today’s Music Classroom by Virginia Hoge Mead, is published by Schott Music Corporation, New York, c1994. The publication is recommended by Dalcroze Australia.

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Dalcroze Today: an education through and into music

January 24, 2010

Go to resource: Dalcroze Today: an education through and into music by Marie-Laure Bachmann is published by Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1991. This text is useful for teachers wishing to implement Dalcroze methodology into the classroom, and is recommended by Dalcroze Australia.
Publisher’s description: “Emile Jaques-Dalcroze, 1865-1950, was an educational pioneer, musician, and creative artist. This book gives us a fascinating insight into the inception and development of his work, from the end of the last century up to the present day. It traces his growing ideas on the use of movement and
of improvisation in the process of music learning, and the application of these ideas to the vital experiencing of musical material, both for children and adults.”

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Heather Gell’s Thoughts on Dalcroze Eurhythmics & Music Through Movement

January 24, 2010

Go to resource: Heather Gell’s Thoughts on Dalcroze Eurhythmics & Music Through Movement is edited by Joan Pope and published by CIRCME, University of Western Australia in association with the Heather Gell Dalcroze Foundation, Nedlands, WA, c1996. This publication is recommended by Dalcroze Australia.

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Issues in expressive arts curriculum for early childhood: an Australian perspective

December 20, 2009

Go to resource: Issues in expressive arts curriculum for early childhood: an Australian perspective. Published in 1996, guest editor Wendy Schiller. This collection of papers includes “The Arts: the real business of education” by Wendy Schiller, and “‘Not wilting flowers again!’ Problem-finding and problem-solving in movement and performance” by Suzanne Dyer and Wendy Schiller.

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Keeping Primary students engaged in Music


June 19, 2011

An entertaining article by a Primary Music teacher who entertains her students with bubbles, colourful hats and knock-knock jokes … in the interests of keeping students on task.

http://theapple.monster.com/training/articles/858-keeping-students-engaged-in-music

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Kodaly workshop @ NECOM 20-21 October 2012


March 19, 2012

The Armidale Chapter of the Kodaly Music Education Institute of Australia in association with NECOM will be holding another exciting workshop at Old Teachers College on the weekend of October 20-21 this year.  Two wonderful teachers, Judith Johnson and Tim Sherlock are the presenters this year. Judith Johnson is the author of many texts used by music teachers throughout Australia. She has 30 year’s experience using Kodaly ‘s method in schools and recently retired from the School of Music at the University of Queensland where she also taught aural musicianship and classroom methodology to teachers in training. Her vast experience and delightful personality will make this a very special learning experience. Teachers attending the weekend will receive 10 hours of accredited PD and Judith will take a  special stream concentrating on early childhood methodology – a wonderful introduction for those new to Kodaly methods.

Tim Sherlock is a renowned choral conductor, composer and teacher in Brisbane. He regularly teaches at the January Kodaly Summer schools. His interest is in composing and arranging for choral ensembles and his works are in great demand by children’s, youth and adult choirs. There will be a choral reading session during the weekend of some of Tim’s music. He will also give a special workshop on composition for Year 11 students preparing for the HSC.

Enquiries can be directed to Inge Southcott via email: ingesinger@bigpond.com

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life after MCUI – what now?


November 9, 2012

Is your school still buzzing after last week’s HUGE music-making session? Now is the time to apply for musical professional learning funding for 2013. Learn the guitar or ukulele. Join a community choir. Enrol in an Orff or Kodaly course (Primary classroom music pedagogy). Enquire about Musical Futures (Middle School). Subscribe to online resources through Jozzbeat or Musica Viva. Register for ECCPA (Early Childhood Music). Investigate MEP (Canberra). Book the Singing Classroom (Vic). Browse the More Music Toolkit … or email schools.mpfl@mca.org.au for some more ideas.

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Mus Ed literature review


June 10, 2013

A Brief Survey of Research into the Benefits of Music in Education

Mandy Stefanakis and Assoc Prof Robin Stevens, of the MCA’s working group for a National Strategy for Research in Music Education, have conducted a national and international survey of research in music education to identify research projects demonstrating a broad range of benefits of music education. The references below are to research outcomes supported by research methodology assessed as producing highly reliable results.

Where research reports are available online, links have been given. Otherwise, readers can seek them through the list of references at the end of this report.

Aesthetic development

Music provides the opportunity for aesthetic experiences. An aesthetic knowledge can be described as a deep perceptual understanding in which the senses, the emotions and cognition are combined to make meaning through the experiences of creating, making and interpreting aesthetic forms. (See Australian Curriculum: The Arts, 2013; Seidel et al )

Personal, Social, Cultural Expression and Identity Formation

Music through performance and creative experiences  provides a means for personal expression, communication and personal, social and cultural identity formation (See McPherson and Welch, 2012;  Damasio, 2012; Bowman; Australian Curriculum: The Arts; Seidel et al; Dissanayake; Bresler; Storr; 1992; Green, 2011; Hargreaves et al, 2012; Gupta; Campbell et al 2008; McPherson et. al, 2012; Stefanakis)

Music provides an opportunity to experience and differentiate emotional responses (see Juslin and Sloboda, 2001; Hodges; Storr, 1992; Seidel et al)

Music contributes to students’ personal well-being through developing self-image, self-confidence, self-esteem, etc. (see Deasy; National Association for Music Education, President’s Committee on the Arts and in the Humanities; Seidel et al.)

Brain Function

With the introduction of more precise techniques to scan different areas of the brain, there has been a massive interest and increase in the amount of neurological research into brain function when engaged in a whole range of musical activities from passive listening to performing on individual instruments. Research specifically shows that both older and newer areas of the brain inclusive of sensory-motor, emotions, cognition, fine motor, equilibrium, aural centres, and both hemispheres of the brain are used to varying degrees and in different ways when engaged in musical activity with dependence on a range of factors. These include gender, age and experience of the musician, the task being undertaken, for example aural, performance, conducting, individual task, group task, and even the kind of music or sound used in a study. Additionally there are variations among individuals.

Importantly, evidence demonstrates that there is a more pervasive effect on the development of the brain (brain plasticity) when a child starts learning an instrument than learning that takes place as an adolescent or adult, but there is still plasticity in the adult brain. Sustained, structured practice with delineated outcomes enhances this plasticity. (Of note is the work of Levitin, 2012; Damasio, 2012; Evans et al, 2009; Hodges, 1996; Hodges and Gruhn, 2012; Juslin and Sloboda, 2001; Merrett and Wilson, 2012; Peretz and Zatorre, 2003; Asbury and Rich, Winner and Hetland)

Music contributes to students’ cognitive development including abstract thinking, aural and spatial awareness, verbal understanding (see above)

Music contributes to students’ kinetic / motor skill development (see above)

Creativity

Music contributes to students’ creativity when engaged with composing, arranging, improvising tasks which call upon the individual or group to imagine, plan, organise, experiment with and develop sound in an abstract way (see Barrett and Tafuri, 2012; Harwood and Marsh, 2012; Seidel et al; Arts Ed Search, President’s Committee on the Arts and the Humanities).

Learning Outcomes across Disciplines

It is still not fully understood why, but music enhances learning in a range of non-musical domains. Current thinking centres around the fact that music stimulates so many different brain regions, or that it motivates learning through the brain chemical ‘rewards’ (such as dopamine hits), the joy that music provides, (McCarthy) or that the social connections and self-esteem it establishes in students has a carry-over effect. Although the reasons are not fully understood there is a great deal of evidence to show that there is a correlation between music learning and enhanced abilities in a range of areas:

·         Music contributes to students’ rational thinking—reasoning, critical thinking, logistical thinking and interpretive skills (see McGarity, 1986)

·         Music contributes to learning in other knowledge and skill areas such as numeracy, literacy (see Bahr, 1996; Geoghegan, 1993)

·         Music contributes to students’ concentration, memory, time management. A plethora of short-term and longitudinal studies, particularly in the US, demonstrate these effects as a result of Arts Education and the suggested sources list many of these studies (see Burnaford, Arts Ed Search, Fiske, Deasy, Nafme for the above).

Social Cohesion and Skills

Music connects people through sound, so that there is a sense of physical and emotional camaraderie and shared experience. It is what is most unique about the musical experience (see Todd, 2002; Brown, 2000; McNeill, 1995). This ‘shared sound’ leads to a greater sense of communication with others, team cooperation and enhances social confidence (see Welch and McPherson, 2012).

Music contributes to students’ social skills—communication with others, social confidence, team cooperation, leadership potential, etc. (see Stevenson and Deasy, McCarthy).

Music has therapeutic applications in relation to mental, physical and social disabilities (Stevenson and Deasy, Gupta, Catterall et al., Schlaug, McDonald, 1999; Stacey, 1983; Weidenbach, 1981).

Music provides a vocational outcome for some students (McPherson and Welch, 2012).

REFERENCES

Barrett, M. S. and Tafuri, J. (2012) ‘Creative Meaning-Making in Infants’ amd Young Children’s Musical Cultures’ in McPherson, G. and Welch, G. (Eds.) (2012) The Oxford Handbook of Music Education Volume 1. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Bahr, N. (1996). Relationships between Musicianship and Mathematical Skill. MEd thesis, University of Queensland, Queensland.

Brown, S. (2000) ‘The “Musilanguage” Model of Music’, in N. L. Wallin, B. Merker, and S. Brown (Eds.) The Origins of Music (pp. 271-300). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Campbell, P. Connell, C., and Beegle, A. (2008) ‘Adolescents Expressed Meanings of Music in and Out of School,’ in Journal of Research in Music Education. Fall 2007, Volume 55, Number 3, pp.220 – 236.

Damasio, A. (2012) Self Comes to Mind: Constructing the Conscious Brain. New York:  Vintage.

Evans, A. C., Forgeard, M., Hyde, K. L., Lerch, J., Norton, A., Schlaug, G. and Winner, E. (2009) ‘Effects of Musical Training on Structural Brain Development: A Longitudinal Study,’ in The Neurosciences and Music III: Disorders and Plasticity: Annual New.York Academy of Sciences. 1169: 182–186.

Geoghegan, N. (1993). Possible Effects of Early Childhood Music on Mathematical Achievement. MA thesis, Macquarie University, New South Wales.

Green, L. (Ed.) (2011) Learning, Teaching and Musical Identity: Voices Across Cultures. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Hargreaves, D. J., MacDonald, R. and Miell, D. (2012) ‘Musical Identities Mediate Musical Development,’ in McPherson, G. and Welch, G. (Eds.) (2012) The Oxford Handbook of Music Education Volume 1. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Harwood, E. and Marsh, K. (2012) ‘Children’s Ways of Learning Inside and Outside the Classroom,’ in McPherson, G. and Welch, G. (Eds.) (2012) The Oxford Handbook of Music Education Volume 1. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Hodges, D. (1996) ‘Human Musicality,’ in Hodges, D. (Ed.) Handbook of Music Psychology. San Antonio: Institute for Music Research.

Hodges, D. and Gruhn, W. (2012) ‘Implications of Neurosciences and Brain Research for Music Teaching and Learning,’ in McPherson, G. and Welch, G. (Eds.) (2012) The Oxford Handbook of Music Education Volume 1. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Juslin, P. and Sloboda, J. (Eds.) (2001) Music and Emotion. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Levitin, D. J. (2012) ‘What Does it Mean to be Musical?’ in Neuron 73, February 23, pp. 663 – 637.

McDonald, L. M. M. (1999) The Response to Classroom Music Experiences of Students who have Learning Difficulties and/or Behaviour Problems. MEd research paper, Deakin University, Victoria.

McGarity, B.M. (1986) Relationships among Cognitive Processing Styles, Musical Ability and Language Ability. MEd thesis, University of New England, New South Wales.

McNeill, W. (1995) Keeping Together in Time: Dance and Drill in Human History.

Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

McPherson, G. E., Davidson, J. W., & Faulkner, R. (2012) Music in Our Lives: Rethinking Musical Ability, Development and Identity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

McPherson, G. E., and Welch, G. (Eds.) (2012) The Oxford Handbook of Music Education Volumes 1 and 11. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Merrett, D. and Wilson, S. (2012) ‘Musicianship and the Brain,’ in Brown, A. (Ed.) Sound Musicianship: Understanding the Crafts of Music. Newcastle Upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Peretz, I. and Zatorre, R. J. (Eds.) (2003) The Cognitive Neuroscience of Music. New York: Oxford University Press.

Stacey, B.J. (1983) Music Education and the Hearing-Impaired Child:  An Experimental Program. MMus thesis, University of Queensland, Queensland.

Storr, A. (1992) Music and the Mind. New York: Free Press.

Todd, N., Lee, C. and O’Boyle, D. (2002) ‘A Sensorimotor Theory of Temporal Tracking and Beat Induction’. Psychological Research, Volume 66, Number 1 / February pp: 26 – 39.

Weidenbach, V.G. (1981) Music in the Education of the Young, Multiply Handicapped Deaf / Blind Children. MA thesis, Macquarie University, New South Wales.

Welch, G. F. & McPherson, G. E. (2012) ‘Introduction and Commentary: Music Education and the Role of Music in People’s Lives,’ in McPherson, G. and Welch, G. (Eds.) (2012) The Oxford Handbook of Music Education Volume 1. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

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Music in Action

February 10, 2010

Go to resource: Music in Action is a magazine published by the Australian Music Association. Available via online or print, the magazine covers issues faced by music educators including music advocacy, implementing music technology, lesson advice, professional educators profiles, and music education projects. The magazine is currently edited by Robin Stevens.

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Music in childhood: from preschool through the elementary grades

December 21, 2009

Go to resource: Music in childhood: from preschool through the elementary grades, written by Patricia Shehan Campbell and Carol Scott-Kassner. This is a comprehensive textbook that covers a range of musical activities for inclusion in the classroom.

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Music Skills for Classroom Teachers

February 9, 2010

Go to resource: Music Skills for Classroom Teachers, by Robert Winslow, Shelley Wiest and Leon Dallin, is published by McGraw Hill, Boston, 2001. This book outlines the basic music skills required by teachers of classroom music, including reading music notation, listening skills, playing instruments, singing, and includes charts to assist with learning.

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Music, movement and the young child

January 24, 2010

Go to resource: Music, movement and the young child, by Heather Gell, is published by Australasian Publishing Company, Sydney, 1973 (New Revised Edition). Originally written in 1949, with subsequent new editions, the publication is recommended by Dalcroze Australia.

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NING for Music Educators (Australian)

April 25, 2011

http://australianmusiceducators.ning.com/ is an Australian discussion forum for music educators.  It was set up with the intent of discussing ideas on classroom band programs, but it really is a forum for discussion on any aspect of Australian music teaching from P-12.  At present there is a small group of members, but I am hoping to build it up and draw on a wide range of professional knowledge and experience.

This group is completely FREE (in a monetary sense, not a moral or metaphysical sense).

Please come along and check it out.  The page is run as a ning, which is basically a social network with a particular focus.  It is great for online discussion, linking of video and photo and has facility for you to blog.  All you need to do is create an account.

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Orff NSW

January 24, 2010

Go to resource: Orff NSW is a non-profit organisation that supports teachers in music education, and is the NSW branch of the national association for Schulwerk methodology.

Their site has links to membership details, workshops, conferences, and further professional learning.

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Orff Schulwerk Association of South Australia


January 24, 2010

Go to resource: The Orff Schulwerk Association of South Australia is a non-profit organisation that supports teachers in music education, and is the SA branch of the national association for Schulwerk methodology.Their site has links to details about membership, upcoming conferences and workshops, and marimba hiring information.

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Rhythm, Music & Education

January 24, 2010

Go to resource: Rhythm, Music & Education by Emile Jaques-Dalcroze, published by the Dalcroze Society, London (originally in 1921) sets out the Dalcroze methodology for music education.The publication is recommended for teachers by Dalcroze Australia.

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Teaching Music Magazine

February 19, 2010

Go to resource: Teaching Music Magazine is a periodical published by MENC (Music Educators National Conference, USA) and is available online via subscription. The magazine offers practical articles about music teaching and has been published since 1993.

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Teaching rhythmics: principles and guidelines for teachers of Dalcroze eurhythmics

January 24, 2010

Go to resource: Teaching rhythmics: principles and guidelines for teachers of Dalcroze eurhythmics by Elizabeth Vanderspar, is published by the Dalcroze Society, London, 2005, and is recommended by Dalcroze Australia.

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The rhythm inside : connecting body, mind, and spirit through music

January 24, 2010

Go to resource: The rhythm inside : connecting body, mind, and spirit through music by Julia Schnebly-Black and Stephen Moore, is published by Rudra Press, Portland, Oregon, c1997, and is recommended for teachers by Dalcroze Australia. It has a section on Dalcroze exercises.

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The Unfolding Human Potential: an exploration of the teaching of eurhythmics

January 24, 2010

Go to resource: The Unfolding Human Potential: an exploration of the teaching of eurhythmics by Mary Brice, and published by Editions Papillon, Geneva, 2004, examines the methodology of Dalcroze. The publication is recommended by Dalcroze Australia.

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Toccata Blocks for teaching rhythm theory


May 30, 2013

Toccata blocks are concrete resources to assist students (from aged 4 – 104) when learning to read rhythms.   www.toccatablocks.com/

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Victorian Orff Schulwerk Association


January 24, 2010

Go to resource: The Victorian Orff Schulwerk Association is a non-profit organisation that supports teachers in music education, and is the Victorian branch of the national association for Schulwerk methodology. Their site has links to a comprehensive and searchable listing of suitable classroom music and movement resources. Many of these resources have been reviewed and can be purchased through VOSA. The association also offers membership, workshops, and further professional learning.

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VOSA – Victorian Orff Schulwerk Association


January 2, 2011

Go to resource: VOSA (Vic Orff Schulwerk Assoc) Resources, articles, ideas and lesson plans for incorporating the Orff approach to Music education (hands-on percussion and ensembles). Resources are split into two sections: Early Childhood resources (aged 0 – 8) & ages 9+. Also includes ideas for Music and movement.

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West Australian Orff Schulwerk Association


January 24, 2010

Go to resource: The West Australian Orff Schulwerk Association is a non-profit organisation that supports teachers in music education, and is the WA branch of the national association for Schulwerk methodology.

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